考研名师任丽卿详解考研英语翻译法则

楼主 lilyann 2004-11-14 11:26:37 考研名师任丽卿详解考研英语翻译法则

英译汉考试的重点是测试学生对英语的理解能力及汉语表达能力。在教育部制定的硕士学位研究生英语教学大纲中,规定了硕士生入学时应达到的英语水平标准,有关翻译部分的规定是“能将一般难度的英语短文译成汉语,理解基本正确,译文达意”。这就需要考生既要有比较好的英语基础,还要有扎实的汉语功底。翻译是一项对综合能力要求比较高的题型,它不仅要求学生对词汇、语法、语篇以及文化等有较好的掌握,还要求学生有着很强的组词成句、组句成段的能力。仔细观察历年的考题,我们会发现这类题型主观性比较强,它要求考生可以有适当的发挥。但在评分时有合适标准和可接受的标准,也就是说只要考生所翻译的句子适合于上下文的基本思想而且其译文也能被人所接受,一般可以判定这个句子的翻译符合要求。
  最近几年的考研翻译部分是给出一篇400多个词的英语文章,要求考生在仔细阅读整篇文章并理解文章的基本意义的基础上,准确地按照上下文的提示和意义(即一定的语境)将划线部分(一般是五个句子)翻译成汉语。体裁大多是议论文,其中相当一部分的内容是有关科学常识的。所以要取得一个好成绩考生不但要有比较扎实的翻译基本功而且还需要比较广的知识面。比较扎实的翻译基本功包括良好的语言素质、对两种语言异同点的把握和熟悉翻译的基本技能和技巧。

考研英语翻译法则之分译法

英语长句子比较多,汉语句子相对而言比较短。在翻译时可以改变原文结构,把原文的某个成分从原来的结构中分离出来,译成一个***成分、从句或并列分句。
  He unnecessarily spent a lot of time introducing this book, which the students are familiar with.他花了很长时间介绍这本书,其实没有必要,因为学生们对它已经很熟悉了。
  We tried in vain to persuade him to give up his wrong belief.我们尽力劝说他放弃错误的信念,但没有成功。
  It has been rightly stated that this situation is a threat to international security.这个局势对国际安全是个威胁,这样的说法是完全正确的。
  Other students of the brain, noting that disease and physical damage can change personally and distort the mind, believe the brain to be nothing more than a fantastically complex computer.另外有一些科学家注意到疾病和身体损伤能够改变人的秉性,歪曲人的心灵。他们认为人脑仅仅是一个神奇复杂的计算机而已。

考研英语翻译法则之合译法

和分译法不同,合译法是将不同的句子成分组合在一起,使其更符合汉语的表达方法。如:
  Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools.他们说科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼识,不如说源于改进了的技术和工具等等更为普遍的东西。(将英语的一个句子结构翻译成一个词组)
  When that happens, it is not a mistake: it is mankind’s instinct for moral reasoning in action, an instinct that should be encouraged rather than laughed at.这种反应并不错,这是人类用道德观念进行推理的本能在起作用。这种本能应得到鼓励,而不是遭到嘲笑。(When that happens, it is not a mistake原来是两个句子,现在组合成一个简洁的汉语句子。)(真题示范)

考研英语翻译法则之反译法

一个问题有时可以从不同的角度来解释说明。有些句子英语是从正面说的,汉语可以从反面来解释。
  1)否定译成肯定。如:
  I never passed the theatre but I thought of his last performance.每一次经过那家剧院,我都会想起他的最后一次演出。
  There is no rule that has no exception.任何规则都有例外。(双重否定)
  Hardly a month goes by without word of another survey revealing new depths of scientific illiteracy among U.S. citizens.美国公民科盲日益严重,这种调查报告几乎月月都有。(双重否定)(真题示范)
  The United Nations Organization has not, so far, justified the hopes which the people of the world set on it.到目前为止,联合国辜负了世界人民寄予的希望。
  Under such times as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more“ unnatural food”.除非人类终于意识到要把人口减少到这样的程度,使地球能为所有的人提供足够的饮食,否则人们将不得不接受更多的“人造食品”。(真题示范)

  2)肯定译成否定。如:
  Everyone has the right to be free from hunger.人人有不挨饿的权利。
  This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields.这种困境将是确定无疑的,因为能源的匮乏使农业无法以高能量消耗、投入少数农民就可能获得高产的美国耕种方式继续下去了。(真题示范)
  Mean are too clever to let themselves be cheated by fashion designers.男人们很聪明,他们不会上时装设计者们的当。(将肯定句翻译成否定句)
  He showed unfeigned satisfaction at his friend’s success.他对朋友的成功表现出真正的满足。
  The target is wrong, for in attacking the tests, critics divert attention from the fault that lies with ill-***rmed or incompetent users.把标准化测试作为抨击目标是错误的,因为在抨击这类测试时,批评者不考虑其弊病来自人们对测试不甚了解或使用不当。(真题示范)
  The conclusion we reached in Britain is that change simply cannot sensibly be put off. 我们英国人得出的结论是,改革是大势所趋。(be put off是被动语态,如果译成“不能合乎情理地被推迟”,汉语显得别扭,所以采用反译的方法。)
#2 回复 lilyann 2004-11-14 11:26:56 考研英语翻译法则之顺序调整法

  一般来说,翻译时应该按照句子原来的顺序进行,但由于英汉两种语言中定语、状语和一些其他成分的位置不完全相同,翻译时需要做一定的调整(例如采用倒译法),使其更符合汉语的习惯。如:
  He looked at the sea moodily.他心情不快地望着大海。(英语的状语moodily翻译成汉语时位置有所变化)
  The true measure of the danger is represented by the hazards we will encounter if we enter the new age of technology without first evaluating our responsibility to environment.如果我们进入了技术新时代而不首先估价我们对环境所负的责任,我们将遇到公害,这些公害将表明危险真正达到了什么程度。
  That our environment has little, if anything, to do with our abilities, characteristics and behavior is central to this theory.这种理论的核心是,我们的环境同我们的才能、性格特征和行为即使有什么关系的话,也是微不足道的。(原来的谓语,在译文中变成了在前的主语。)(真题示范)
  Aid is only partial recompense for what the superior economic power of the advanced countries denies us through trade.先进国家用优势力量,通过贸易剥削我们,其援助只不过是部分偿还而已。
  Behaviorists, in contrast, say that differences in scores are due to the fact that blacks are often deprived of may of the educational and other environmental advantages that whites enjoy.相反,行为主义者认为,成绩的差异是由于黑人往往被剥夺了白人在教育及其他环境方面所享有的许多有利条件。(in contrast在原文句中,翻译成汉语后放在句首。)(真题示范)

考研英语翻译法则之重复翻译法

为了避免文章单调乏味,用英语写作时用尽量避免重复,常见的方法有使用代词、同义词、近义词以及省略某些成分等。但汉语不怕重复,连续使用某个词语是常见的情况,所以英译汉时为了译文的通顺我们可以适当地重复某些必要的词语。如:
  Marketing economy is itself the product of long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and of exchange.市场经济本身是一个长期发展过程的产物,是生产方式和交换方式一系列变革的产物。(名词重复)
  Federally funded training and free back-to-school programs for laid-off workers are under way, but few experts believe they will be able to keep up with the pace of the new technology.为失业工人提供的联邦[根据相关法规进行屏蔽]资助的培训计划和免费重返学校学习的计划目前都在实施中,但专家中几乎没有人认为这些计划能跟得上新技术的发展步伐。(they指的是上文的programs)
  Among the four pictures, two appear to be real, others false.在这四幅画中,有两幅看起来是真的,另外两幅看起来则是赝品。(动词重复)
  Do animals have rights?…Actually, it isn’t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.事实并非如此,因为这种问法是以人们对人的权利有共同认识为基础的,而这种共同认识并不存在。(it指Do animals have rights?)(真题示范)

考研英语翻译法则之几种特殊否定句式的翻译法

The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.脏和胃一样不能思维,都受大脑支配。(“no more…than翻译成汉语“和……一样不”)(真题示范)
  There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.他们没有理由限定你吃多少维生素,就如同他们不能限定你喝多少水一样。
  It was not so much the many blows he received as the lack of fighting spirit that led to his losing the game.与其说他输了比赛是多次被击中,不如说是自己缺乏斗志。(“not so much …as”翻译成“与其说……,不如说……”)
  Without accepting new techniques, there will be no great increase in labor productivity.不采用新技术,就不能大幅度提高劳动生产率。
  There is no agreement whether methodology refers to the concepts peculiar to historical work in general or to the research techniques appropriate to the various branches of historical inquiry.所谓方**是指一般的历史研究中的特有概念,还是指历史研究中各个具体领域使用的研究手段,人们对此意见不一。(真题示范)
  Interests in historical methods has arisen less through external challenge to the validity of history as an intellectual discipline and more from internal quarrels among historians themselves.人们之所以关注历史研究的方**,主要是因为史学界内部意见不一,其次是因为外界并不认为历史是一门学问。(真题示范)
  He is One cannot be too careful while driving in the area.在该地区开车越细心越好。
  He is the last person I want to see in the world.他是这个世界上我最不愿意见到的人。

考研英语翻译法则之被动语态翻译法

1)变为汉语的主动形式。如:
  In his attitude can be found seeds for art in the 20th century: the art of the primitive, of symbol, and of imagination.在他的态度中可以找到20世纪艺术的种子:充满原始、象征和想象的艺术。
  It leads the discussion to extremes at the outset: it invites you to think that animals should be treated either with the consideration humans extend to other humans, or with no consideration at all.这种说法从一开始就将讨论引向两个极端,它使人们认为应该这样对待动物:要么像对待人类自身一样关切体谅,要么完全冷漠无情。(真题示范)
  On the whole such a conclusion can be drawn with a certain degree of confidence, but only if the child can be assumed to have had the same attitude towards the test as the other with whom he is being compared, and only if he was not punished by lack of relevant ***rmation which they possessed.总的来说,得出这样的结论是有一定的把握的,但是必须具备两个条件:能够假定这个孩子对测试的态度和与他相比较的其他孩子的态度相同;他也没有因为缺乏其他孩子已掌握的有关知识而被扣分。(真题示范)
  In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined.总而言之,如果需要测定的人的素质能够精确地界定出来,那些测试就能有效地发挥作用,而如果那些需要测定或预测的素质不能清楚地界定出来,那些测试就没有什么效果。(真题示范)

  2)被动结构的表语化,将其翻译成“是……的”、“由……的”等。如:
  The movement to oppose racial discrimination was personally initiated and led by a famous Negro leader.这场反对种族歧视的运动是由一位著名的黑人领袖亲自发动和领导的。

  3)译成具有被动意义的汉语结构。如:
  For all the help this computer may provide, it should not be seen as a substitute for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.尽管计算机可以提供那么多的帮助,它却不应该被看作是基本的思维和推理技巧的替代物。
  It should be made clear to entire citizens that whoever enjoys rights must undertake corresponding obligations.应该使全体公民明白,享受权利者必须承担响应的义务。
  Those who support the“nature”side of the conflict believe that our personalities and behavior patterns are largely determined by biological factors.在这场争论中,赞成“天性”一方的人认为,我们的性格特征和行为模式大多数是由生物因素确定的。(真题示范)
  How well the predictions will be validated by later performance depends upon the amount, reliability, and appropriateness of the ***rmation used and on the skill and wisdom with which it is interpreted.这些预测将在多大程度上为后来的表现所证实取决于所用信息的数量、可靠程度、适宜程度以及用来解释这些信息的技巧与才智。(真题示范)

  4)增添“人们”、“大家”等适当的词做汉语译文的主语。如:
  With the new technique, measurement was claimed to be much more precise.有了这种技术,人们断言测量的结果精确得多。
  And it is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training.许多人认为普通人的思维活动根本无法和科学家的思维过程相比较,他们并认为这些思维过程必须经过某中专门训练才能掌握。(真题示范)
  During this transfer, traditional historical methods were augmented by additional methodologies designed to interpret the new forms of evidence in the historical study.在这种转变中,历史学家研究历史时,那些解释新史料的新方法充实了传统的历史研究方法。(真题示范)
#3 回复 zzgnn0922 2007-08-22 21:17:56 有没有英译汉WORD版的讲义啊
#4 回复 廖正明 2009-02-27 21:02:01 谢谢分享!
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